A

Accent Colour

A sharp, intense colour used as a contrast or pick-up for a colour scheme. It is used to add excitement to an overall effect.

Acid Mantle

The combination of sweat and sebum that provides the skin’s protective coating.

Acid Perm

An acid perm produces permanent hair waves with curls that are actually softer than an alkaline perm. It also has a pH from 6.5 to 8.0.

Acne

An inflammation of the skin - a result of over production of oil and bacteria.

Activator

A chemical ingredient that is specifically added to hair bleach to speed up the action of the bleach without unnecessarily damaging the hair.

Acupressure

A method of relieving pain by pressing down on an area of the body.

Acupuncture

A method of relieving pain by inserting needles into the skin.

Afro Hair

A hairstyle consisting of a mass of very tight curls that stick out all round the head, like the natural hair of some black people.

Alkaline Perm

A chemical based permanent waving product that has a pH from 7.5 to 9.5. Stronger than acid perms, alkaline perms are designed to produce tight, firm, springy curls rather than the looser curls produced by acid perms.

Alopecia

Loss of hair, especially from the head, which either happens naturally or is caused by disease.

Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA)

These solutions are used as exfoliates and can help reduce ingrown hairs and improve the look of the skin.

B

Barbicide

Brand name of the sanitizer used to disinfect salon tools.

Basic Shade

A natural or neutral colour applied to the hair.

Blanching

Whitening of the skin sometimes caused by some types of hair removal - also called hypopigmentation.

Bleach

A method used to disguise, not remove, hair by lightening its colour.

Blonde Hair

Is not as visible and harder to treat. Lasers have limited effects on blonde hair because of its lack of pigment, and it is difficult to see against the skin.

Bonding

The attachment of hair wefts to natural hair with a latex or surgical type adhesive.

Braid

Where strands of hair are weaved together. On the scalp braiding is used to form a base or track to sew on a commercial weft - this is the cornrow technique. Off the scalp braiding is used for traditional braiding styles.

Bruise

A discoloration of skin from blood, sometimes caused by electrolysis, plucking or waxing.

C

CACI

This acronym stands for Computer Aided Cosmetology Instrument, which is a non-surgical facelift. By applying a micro-current to the face this treatment tones muscles making them feel firmer and smoothens the appearance of lines and wrinkles.

Cicatricial Alopecia

This is baldness due to scarring - follicles are absent in scar tissue.

Club Hair

A non-living hair in the last stages of the hair growth cycle, it is detached from the follicle but has not yet shed.

Coarse

A classification for stronger, thicker types of hair.

Conditioner

A creamy hair product used after shampooing - moisturises and detangles the hair.

Cornrow

Term used to describe an on the scalp braid. These braids can be used to form a track for the cornrow weaving method.

Couture Cut

A couture cut is a high-fashion cut which is totally exclusive and specifically tailored to your lifestyle and wardrobe.

Crop

Originally the word crop was an alternative to haircut, without any specific meaning to the style of the cut. However it has come to be a description of hair that is cut very short with the hair hugging the head.

Crown

Area at the top of the head.

Cuticles

The hair cuticles form a protective layer which covers the shaft of the hair. If your hair is coloured or bleached they can spread out, split or become bloated due to over processing.

D

Dandruff

Flaking scalp due to excessive cell production.

Deep Penetrating Treatment

A conditioner of greater intensity which usually contains protein, vitamins and moisture to help dry, damaged hair.

Depilate

Removal of hair on the surface of the skin. Examples include shaving or the use of depilatory creams.

Depilation

The temporary removal of hair.

Dermabrasion

A cosmetic procedure used to smooth skin and reduce scars.

Diffuser

A Diffuser is an adapter you put on the end of your hairdryer; it’s generally circular with a number of pins sticking out from it. The diffuser spreads out the air flow from your hairdryer so you don’t get the full force of the air, meaning a gentler drying process.

Dreadlocks

A hairstyle in which the hair naturally, or through manipulation, is encouraged to become matted and form a cylindrical, rope-like pattern. Dreadlocks may take several months to well over a year to form and are considered a permanent style. In order to remove dreadlocks, one must cut them.

E

Eczema

Also called contact dermatitis, it’s a mild inflammation of the skin.

F

Fashion Shade

A basic hair colour with an added tone.

Finishing Spray

A hairspray with medium hold used on a finished style to maintain its shape.

Fly-Away Hair

Fly-away hair is thin hair that is charged by static and is a particular problem with straight styles.

Follicular Hair Transplants

One of the latest techniques for conducting hair transplants where surgeons harvest hair from another part of the body where it naturally grows.

Freckles

Small clumps of coagulated melanin.

Freezing Spray

A hairspray with the firmest hold used to maintain style of hard to hold hair.

G

Gel

Jelly like material formed by the coagulation of a liquid. Semi-solid emulsion that liquefies when applied to the skin.

Grey Hair

Hair that has lost its pigment.

H

Hair Extensions

Hair extensions are used to add volume or length to your hair by bonding synthetic or real hair to your roots.

Hair Weaving

A process by which a hairpiece is attached to your existing hair by braiding or weaving.

I

Ingrown Hair

Hair that does not break the surface of the skin and grows inward. Can be severe and cause inflammation, soreness and infection.

Interlocking

A method in which hair is maintained or tightened using a tool.

J

Jojoba Oil

Contains superior properties to keep skin and hair soft. It is beneficial to dry hair.

K

Keloids

A type of raised darkened scar due to a defect in the skin’s healing process - more common with darker skin.

L

Layering

Layering is a technique used by hairdressers to change the thickness of the hair, creating either a thinning or thicker appearance. In this way the hair can be given a fuller appearance, more texture and movement.

M

Melanin

Natural substance that gives colour (pigment) to hair and skin.

N

Natural

Ingredients extracted directly from plants, earth minerals or animal products as opposed to being produced synthetically.

O

Organic

Pertaining to carbon-based compounds produced by living plants, animals or by synthetic processes.

P

Patch Test

A test performed usually with a hair dye, or other potential allergens, on the skin 24 hours before its use to see if the skin suffers an allergic reaction.

Perm

The Perm creates curls by restructuring your hair molecules with a chemical or heat treatment, and is generally a long-lasting or permanent change to your hair.

R

Relax

To chemically straighten the hair to gently smooth out curls, reduce frizz or create a straight style.

Relaxer

A chemical process by which the hair is permanently straightened. New-growth areas have to be maintained via ’touch-ups’ to continue the straightened pattern. A relaxer penetrates the cortex and breaks the hair’s natural chemical bonds which originally caused it to be curly. Once these chemical bonds are broken they cannot be repaired so the hair is unable to return to its natural state.

Remi/Remy Hair

Refers to human hair (usually Indian in origin) which has been harvested from root to end with the entire cuticle going in the same direction. It is different from virgin hair as it may be coloured or permed, but has not had the cuticle removed. It is generally soft and silky, and is used for making higher quality wigs, extensions and hair systems.

S

Scrunch Dry

A technique used for drying your hair which creates a style at the same time.

Sectioning

Sectioning your hair allows you to only pay attention to a particular area or panel of hair. You or your hairdresser will do this when blow-drying, cutting or colouring your hair, and will section your hair by taking a panel of hair and pinning or ignoring the rest.

Sunscreen

Products with ingredients that absorb UVA and UVB rays. Find one labeled broad spectrum for maximum protection.

T

T-Zone

The forehead, nose and chin area which tends to be oilier than the cheeks.

Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil is an extraction from the Melaleuca tree which is valued for its antiseptic properties.

Treatment

A treatment is used between shampooing and conditioning to put protein back into the hair. You should leave the treatment in your hair for approximately five minutes before using your conditioner.

V

Virgin Hair

This term refers to hair which is still in its original state and which has not been permed, coloured or chemically processed in any way.

W

Weave

A hair weave is usually a hairpiece with layered gaps made into it. This is then placed on a person’s head and his/her own real hair is woven into the hairpiece.

Wig

The term used to describe any hairpiece with a full cap which covers the hair on the head, or the entire area where hair normally grows, as a substitute for your own hair.

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